1.Phrase- a group of related words used as a single part of speech. A phrase does not contain a subject and a verb. The most common phrases are prepositional. The most common kinds of phrases are noun phrases, verb phrases, prepositional phrases, verbal phrases, and appositive phrases. Each is noted below.

2.NOUN PHRASES consist of a noun to which may be added determiners, adjectives, or other nouns.

3.VERB PHRASES consists of a main verb plus one or more auxiliary/helping verbs.

4.PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES consist of the preposition with its object and any modifiers.

A. Prepositional phrases can be adjectival or adverbial.  
1.  Introductory prepositional phrases and prepositional phrases immediately after the verb are adverbial. 
2.  Prepositional phrases that come after the subject are always adjectival.  Most prepositional phrases beginning with "of" are adjectival.
3. Prepositional phrases that come after a direct object or subjective complement can be either adjectival or adverbial. Ask what/which= adjectival. Ask where, when, how, why= adverbial.

5.APPOSITIVE PHRASES consist of an appositive with its modifiers. An appositive is a noun or pronoun that explains another noun or pronoun. Appositive phrases can be essential or non essential. APPOSITIVE PHRASES identify, explain, or supplement the meaning of the word it adjoins.


6.A verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech. 
7.VERBAL PHRASES consist of a verb form in a word group that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. It is important to remember that verbal phrases do not function as the predicate of a sentence but serve as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns. Verbals may be classified as participles, gerunds, and infinitives.

8.Participial phrases are always used as adjectives. Gerund phrases are always used as nouns. Infinitive phrases are used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

9.A participle is used as an adjective and ends various ways. A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective. A past participle ends with d or ed or is  irregular. 

10.A gerund is a verbal that always functions as a noun. (Verb + ing) A gerund always ends in ing and is used as a noun. 

11.An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. 

12.Clause a group of words with a subject and a verb. There are two kinds of clauses: main (independent or principal) and subordinate (dependent). 

13.Main Clause has a subject and a predicate, expresses a complete thought, and can stand alone.

14.Subordinate clause has a subject and a predicate, does not express a complete thought, and cannot stand alone. It needs to be attached to a main clause in order to make sense. A subordinate clause can be either adjectival, adverbial, or noun.

15.Adjectival Clause is introduced by relative pronouns (who, whose, whom which, that) or relative adverbs (where, when, why) Who is nominative, Whose is possessive, and whom is objective. Who refers to people; which refers to animals and things; and that refers to people, animals, or things.

16.Use that in essential clauses instead of which.

17.Essential clause: a clause necessary to complete the sentence's meaning. An essential clause usually identifies the noun or pronoun it modifies by telling which one and cannot be omitted from the sentence. Essential clauses are generally not set off by commas.

18.Use which only in nonessential clauses or after a preposition.

19.Nonessential clause: a clause unnecessary to complete a sentence's meaning. A nonessential clause usually describes the noun it modifies, is set off by commas, and may be omitted from the sentence.

20.Adverbial Clauses start with a subordinate conjunction-after, although, as, because, before, for, if, provided, since, so, than, that, then, unless, until, when, where, while, as soon as, in order that, provided that, as if, in as much as, so that. Also, the adverbial clause will answer one of the four questions that adverbs answer. 

21.Noun Clauses will often start with the word "that." A noun clause can function as a subject, subjective complement, direct object, indirect object, an object of a preposition, or an appositive. 


22.Simple Sentence: Clauses can be combined in various ways. But, if a sentence contains only an independent clause -- with no other clause -- it will be a simple sentence. A simple sentence is an independent clause. IC = Independent Clause (simple sentence) 

     The rains washed the dirty grass. This is a simple sentence.

23.Compound Sentence: A compound sentence is one containing two or more independent clauses. These clauses will be joined by a semicolon (;) or by a coordinate conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so). IC and IC = Compound Sentence 

Hot mist clouded our view, and thick smoke burned our noses. This is a compound sentence. 

24.Complex Sentence: A complex sentence is a sentence with one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. DC, IC = Complex Sentence 

        After spring arrived, multi-colored flowers filled the meadows. This is a complex sentence. 

25.Compound-Complex: A compound-complex sentence contains two or more main clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. DC, IC and IC = Compound-complex sentence 

 Because my wife is kind, intelligent, and beautiful, I love her, and I enjoy her happy company.   This is a compound-complex sentence. 


26.NOUN: A word that names a person, place, thing, idea, animal, quality, or action. Nouns function as the subject of the sentence. They also function as objects, complements, appositives, and in direct address.

27.VERB: A word denoting action, being or state of being

28.The being verbs are am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been.  

29.The auxiliary/helping verbs are am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, shall, will, may, can, has, have, had, do, does, did, should, would, might, could, must.

30.Copulative/linking verbs link the subject with a noun, pronoun or adjective (a subjective complement).    Am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, appear, become, continue, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, taste.

31.Regular verbs-most verbs form the four principal parts in the same regular way. The past and past participle are formed by adding d or ed.

32.Irregular verbs-many verbs do not follow this pattern. Their principal parts must be memorized. 

33.ADJECTIVE: A word that modifies, qualifies, or describes nouns and pronouns. Generally, adjectives appear immediately before the words they modify. The degrees of intensity are called: the positive (hot), the comparative (hotter), and the superlative (hottest). We use the comparative form for two objects and the superlative form for three of more objects

Quiz 3:

34.PRONOUN:  A word that stands for or replaces a noun. The antecedent is the word that the pronoun replaces. Pronouns may be masculine gender, feminine gender or neuter gender. Pronouns may have person and number. 

35.The personal pronouns are

             I  mine  me   we ours us    he his him    she her hers   it you yours  they theirs them

36.Nominative case personal pronouns (subject pronouns) - I, we, he, she, they- are used as subjects of clauses and as subject complements. 

37.Objective case personal pronouns - me, us, him, her, them (object pronouns) are used as direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions. 

38.Possessive pronouns/adjectives (pronominals) indicate possession or ownership and are used as both pronoun and adjective. (No apostrophes are needed since these are already possessive form.) 

39.Possessive pronouns- mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs

40.Possessive adjectives- my, our, your, his, her, its, their

Quiz 4:

41.Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions (that require a noun or pronoun answer): WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHICH, WHAT (who, whom, whose (all three refer to people) and which and what (both refer to things).)

42.Demonstrative pronouns/adjectives (pronominals) are used to demonstrate or point:  THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE 

43.Relative pronouns are words that relate an adjective clause to the main clause in a complex sentence. It relates to another noun or pronoun already used in the sentence. The relative pronouns are WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHICH, THAT. 

44.Distributive pronouns/adjectives (pronominals)- each, either, neither. EACH is always singular.

45.Indefinite pronouns are words that do not have a definite antecedent, but they do replace more specific nouns.
all another any  anybody anyone anything both everybody  everyone everything  few many much nobody none no one nothing one several some somebody someone something such

Quiz 5:

46.PREPOSITION: introduces prepositional phrases. 
         about, above, across, after, against, among, around,
         at, before, behind, beside, between, beyond, by,
          down, during, except, for, from, in, into,
          near, of, off, on, over, past, through,
          throughout, to, towards, under, until, up, with,

47.CONJUNCTION: A word that functions as a connector between words, phrases, and clauses. There are coordinate, correlative, adverbial, and subordinate conjunctions.

48.The coordinate conjunctions are and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so

49.Correlative conjunctions are the multiple-word conjunctions, such as either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, both…and. 

50.Conjunctive adverbs (adverbial conjunctions) act as both adverbs and conjunctions. Often we use a semicolon in front of a conjunctive adverb and a comma after it. Examples: however, moreover, nevertheless, therefore, then, thus, consequently

51.SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS- introduce adverbial clauses, join adverbial clauses to a main clause.

after,  although, as, because, before, for,  if, provided, since, so, than, that, then, unless, until, when, where, while, as soon as, in order that, provided that, as if, in as much as, so that

52.INTERJECTION: An exclamation expressing emotion.
             Examples: Wow! Help! Stop! Ouch!

Quiz 6: 

Subjects/ Predicates
53.A sentence can be divided into two parts, a subject and a predicate. The complete subject is the simple subject plus its modifiers.  The simple subject is the who or what of the sentence. It can be compound and is made up of nouns, pronouns, or noun substantives. The complete predicate includes the verb and the words which come after the verb (modifiers and complements). The simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase. 

54. The verb can express action, being, or state of being.  Consider, "Eating fourteen toads gave Harold a stomachache." The verb (simple predicate) is "gave"; the complete predicate is "gave Harold a stomachache"; the complete (as well as the simple subject) is the gerund phrase "eating fourteen toads "(a gerund phrase/noun substantive). 

Be Verbs
55.Verbs also show a state of being. Such verbs, include BEING VERBS (am, is, are, was, were, being, been) AND LINKING VERBS (am, is, are, was, were, being, been, appear, become, continue, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, taste).

Understood Subjects

56.A complete sentence must contain a subject and a verb. But sometimes the subject is only "understood." If I say, "Come to my house for dinner," the subject of "come" is "you." (You) come to my house for dinner. In this instance, (you) is understood. The subject of all imperative sentences is you (understood).
We have learned so far that sentences can be arranged with different clause combinations. We can have: 

IC  (simple) IC DC (complex), IC + IC  (compound) IC + IC DC compound/complex. 

In English there are five basic sentence patterns. These patterns are as follows:
1. Subject - Verb (S.V.) 
2. Subject - Verb - Direct Object (S.V.DO.) 
3. Subject - Verb - Direct Object - Objective Complement (S.V.DO.OC) 
4. Subject - Verb - Indirect Object - Direct Object (S.V.IO.DO.) 
5. Subject - Linking Verb - Subject Complement (S.LV.SC.)